The drug Clarithromycin is an antibiotic of semi-synthetic origin from the group of macrolides.
Release form and composition
The drug is available in white tablets in blisters of 10 pieces in a carton box. The box contains detailed instructions.
1 tablet contains 250 or 500 mg of the active active ingredient – clarithromycin. In addition, the drug includes a number of auxiliary components.
Under the influence of the drug on the body, protein synthesis in the pathogenic cell is suppressed, as a result of which the process of its reproduction stops.
The drug is active against gram-positive microflora: streptococcus, staphylococcus, listeria, corynebacteria.
For gram-negative microorganisms: Helicobacter pylori, gonococcus, meningococcus.
For anaerobes: peptokokkam, clostridium.
Intracellular microorganisms: legionella, chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma.
In addition, the drug is active against toxoplasma and mycobacteria, except for mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The drug Clarithromycin is prescribed to patients for the treatment of the following pathologies:
- Inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, inflammation of the middle ear, acute sinusitis);
- Infectious lesions of the lower respiratory tract – acute bronchitis, pneumonia;
- Infectious lesions of the skin and soft tissues – pyoderma, boils, carbuncles;
- Peptic ulcer disease caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori;
- Inflammatory processes of the genitourinary system – urethritis, cystitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis, pyelonephritis;
- In the complex treatment of ureaplasmosis, chlamydia and gonorrhea after a preliminary thorough examination of patients and testing the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics.
Before starting therapy, the instruction attached to the preparation should be studied in detail. Clarithromycin tablets should not be taken in the presence of the following conditions:
- Hypersensitivity or individual intolerance to the components of the drug;
- Hepatic failure and severe renal impairment;
- Age up to 12 years;
- First trimester of pregnancy;
- Breastfeeding period;
- Severe allergic reactions in the history of drugs, which include clarithromycin.
Dosing and Administration
Clarithromycin tablets are taken orally, regardless of the food, with a necessary amount of liquid.
The daily dose of medication and the duration of the course of treatment is determined by the doctor, which depends on the characteristics of the patient, his body weight, diagnosis, the presence of complications and many other factors.
The drug must be taken according to a strictly prescribed scheme by a specialist, preferably at one and the same time daily, thus the therapeutic effect of the drug will be as pronounced as possible.
According to the instructions, patients over 12 years old should take 1 tablet of the drug at a dosage of 250 mg in the morning and evening. In some cases, it is possible to increase the daily dose up to 1 g per day (that is, 1 tablet with a dosage of 500 mg in the morning and evening, or 1 tablet of 250 mg 4 times a day). The duration of the course of therapy should not exceed 2 weeks. If during this period the patient does not show any improvement or his condition, on the contrary, it becomes worse, you should consult a specialist as soon as possible. Perhaps the clinical symptoms of the disease are caused by microorganisms that are not sensitive to the antibiotic.
In some cases, Clarithromycin is combined with other antibiotics under medical supervision.
If the gastrointestinal tract is affected by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, Clarithromycin is prescribed as part of a combination therapy with proton pump blockers (omez, omeprazole, pantoprozole and others). The duration of complex treatment is at least 14 days.
Use of the drug during pregnancy and lactation
In the first trimester of pregnancy, the drug is contraindicated in women, since treatment may lead to congenital anomalies in the fetus.
In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, drug treatment is possible only if the expected benefit to the mother will exceed the likely complications for the fetus.
Since there is no information on the ability of the main component of the drug to penetrate into breast milk, Clarithromycin tablets are not prescribed to women during lactation in order to avoid negative reactions in infants.
In general, the drug is normally tolerated by patients with accurate adherence to the recommended dose. In rare cases, the patient develops the following side effects:
- On the part of the digestive tract – stomach pain, nausea, dry mouth, vomiting, diarrhea, increased flatulence, lack of appetite, stomatitis, liver enlargement and activity of hepatic transaminases;
- On the part of the nervous system – paresthesia, dizziness, sleep disturbances, anxiety, irritability;
- From the side of the heart and blood vessels – tachycardia, changes in electrocardiogram, decrease in blood pressure, the development of acute vascular insufficiency;
- Allergic reactions – skin rashes, itching, redness and burning of the skin, urticaria.
In rare cases, anaphylactic shock or angioedema occurs in individuals with hypersensitivity to clarithromycin.
With the right drug intake, overdose cases are quite rare. In case of accidental ingestion of a large number of tablets or a significant excess of the recommended daily dose, the patient develops signs of overdose. They are expressed in strengthening the above-described side effects and the development of severe disorders of the liver.
In this case, the patient is taken to the doctor, where he is washed the stomach, lead inside the sorbents and spend symptomatic treatment if necessary. Hemodialysis will not be effective.
With simultaneous use of Clarithromycin with theophylline, carbamazepine, cyclosporine and ergot alkaloids, the concentration of the latter in the blood increases.
Clarithromycin in combination with cisapride or pimozide can cause the development of cardiac arrhythmias and changes in electrocardiogram parameters. The therapeutic effect of clarithromycin may be reduced when the drug is combined with rifapmycin.
When combined with anticoagulants for oral administration, prothrombin time and clotting ability of the blood should be periodically monitored.
The use of this drug in the treatment of bacterial infections increases the risk of developing superinfection due to the suppression of the normal intestinal microflora. Diarrhea that occurs while taking antibiotics can lead to the development of pseudomembranous colitis.
If you are already taking any antibiotics, you should definitely inform your doctor before starting therapy with Clarithromycin.
Analogues of the drug are:
Terms of sale and storage
The drug is sold in pharmacies by prescription. The tablets are kept in a dark, cool place where children have no access. The shelf life of the drug is 4 years, at the end of which the drug is discarded.
The approximate cost of tablets in pharmacies in Moscow is 120 rubles.